The Green House Gas Hoax
Green house gas global warming has no theory and no experimental verification. Multinational media refers to it as climate change, global warming ...
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This is climatehoax.ca where the .ca is for a Canadian citizen or resident.
This entry is in a 1980's desk encyclopedia:
Increase of global temperature due to the trapping of heat in the atmosphere by carbon dioxide gas. The mathematical model predicts that the average global temperature will rise 3 to 9 degrees F by the year 2030.
Notice the strange time shift, in 1980's the disaster will occur in 2030. When we get to 2000 the disaster has moved ahead to 2050. Science is a formal argument with as few words as possible. Basic laws of physics do not need to be "time shifted". The Green House Gas Hoax is not in the literature, in particular:
Kinetic mechanical statistical theory of an ideal gas
(1738 Bernoulli, 1857 Clausius, 1873 Maxwell)
Adiabatic lapse rate
According to the dictionary, thermodynamics is the science of relations between heat and other forms of energy. The starting point is an ideal gas where the molecules are far apart and have no attraction to each other. It is not surprising that this theory developed along with the steam engine. Vapor has hundreds of times more volume than liquid. The mass and velocity of the molecules can be deduced from Newton's laws of motion. In the late 1800's, Maxwell completed this theory, the relation between heat and velocity of air molecules in a gas, so that there is confidence and justification in using the ideal gas laws. The next step is to add a gravitational field; what we call the atmosphere.
Adiabatic Lapse Rate
The sun heats up the parking lot and it turns out that air is a good insulator. Here are some materials and their thermal conductivity. Minor changes to the composition of air make very little difference.
| Material|| Insulation Value|
If there is no wind, the surface heats up; and then, the air above heats up. Hot air rises; in this typical case it reaches an altitude of a kilometer in about an hour. The air also expands and therefore cools off, since it is an ideal gas. This is called adiabatic lapse rate. Adiabatic means no heat in or out. The air over the parking lot is considered a single unit. Lapse is from the Latin lapsus meaning to slip or glide. This thermodynamic specification simply means the change of temperature with elevation. Here are two of many derivations.
Divide the gravitational constant by the specific heat of air.
Lr = g/Cp = 9.8K/km
For example if the elevator goes up 100 meters, the temperature will go down 0.98 ºC. For a similar gas, the change would be 2.8 ºC on the planet Jupiter.
The second method is similar to a fluid column, modified so that it models an atmosphere.
dT/dZ = -( γ -1)/ γ ( Mg/R )
In the table below; pressure is in atmospheres, lapse rate is -9 degrees centigrade, altitude is in kilometers.
|altitude|| pressure || temperature|
|0.0 ||1.00 ||0|
|1.0 ||0.89 ||-9|
|2.0 ||0.79 ||-18|
|3.0 ||0.70|| -27|
|4.0 ||0.61 ||-36|
|5.0|| 0.54 ||-45|
Many text books say that the Earth would be at a temperature of -18 ºC without Green house gas. Where does this come from? Go back 30 years. The Scientific American, September 1983, has an article "The Atmosphere."
It says -18 ºC is the temperature, at an altitude of 5 kilometers. The next step is to jump to the ridiculous conclusion that the temperature is also -18 ºC at sea level –– for an atmosphere without carbon dioxide.
2 billion years ago the atmosphere was 100% green house gas. The temperature and adiabatic lapse rate were not much different than today. According to their feeble minded calculations the temperature would be at the boiling point.
The list of hoaxes that made money for the publisher are too numerous to mention. For just one topic, Atlantis, we have:
- Senator Ignatius T. T. Donnelly: Atlantis, the Antediluvian World, 1882 reprinted 50 times
- Lewis Spence: Atlantis Quarterly magazine, plus five books
- Immanuel Velikovsky: Worlds in Collision, 1950
Etc. etc... The next topic is black body radiation.
For most people, black body radiation is a mysterious topic. If people don't understand something; then they can be manipulated by the witch doctor. So we consider heat at a distance with no conduction, insulation, or convection.
The sun is our source of heat. We can imagine its diameter to be expanded out to the orbit of Earth, or indeed, any planet.
Tp: temperature of the planet, or that region of space
Rs: distance from the center (of the sun) to the sun's perimeter = 6.4 x 105 km
Rp: distance from the center to the planet (earth's) orbit = 1.496 x 108 km
Rp: temperature of the Sun = 6000 K
Tp = (Rs/2Rp)1/2 - 273.15
The first row indicates that earth should have a temperature of 4.35ºC. An average of the atmospheric temperature up to 11 km should be less than -10ºC which is quite reasonable, since some of the sun's energy is reflected away. You may have noticed that -18ºC is not correct for an adiabatic lapse rate of 9.8/km (surface temperature of 15ºC). The author, Ingersoll, is using a figure to account for water vapor in the air. How can an honest person use humid adiabatic lapse rate; and then, remove it from all his documents and correspondence!
Finally we have our friend James who writes these computer simulations. Box 1 is from Nature magazine September 1990. He is using a black body formula,
T4 = S/4σ , which is perverted beyond recognition.
A few references
A. The New American Desk Encyclopidia, 1984
B. Ideal Gas Law, Kinetic Theory
Elementary Classical Physics: Weidner, Sells - 1973
C. Adiabatic Lapse Rate
Thermodynamics: Abbott, van Ness - 1989
D. Blackbody Radiation
Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Landsberg - 1990
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